DUCTILE DEFORMATION DURING THE EMPLACEMENT OF AN INTENSELY WELDED RHEOMORPHIC IGNIMBRITE, GREY'S LANDING, SOUTHERN IDAHO, USA
Many rheomorphic ignimbrites exhibit evidence of pervasive ductile deformation, including flow banding, an intense L=S fabric, d-type and (to a lesser extent) s-type pheno-clasts, together with abundant small- and medium-scale flow folds with axes variably transposed towards the elongation lineation, the latter representing the transport direction. We present a field analysis of one the largest and most extensive of deposits, the Greys Landing ignimbrite. It has a volume exceeding 20 km3 and reaches 60 m thickness where it occupies a depression formed by a contemporary Basin and Range half-graben.
Small- and medium-scale folds and the L-S fabrics have been mapped in detail and measured along vertical traverses across the ignimbrite sheet. Results show that the styles, attitudes and orientations of the ductile deformation structures vary systematically both with height through the ignimbrite and with geographic location. A two-part vertical zonation is observed throughout the field area, defined by changes in folding style and attitude, reflecting the increased volume of material deforming with time. Progressive deformation within the deposit is shown by the re-folding of earlier sheath folds and the change in deformation style as a response to contemporaneous volatile exsolution.
We interpret the variations with height in the Greys Landing ignimbrite to record temporal changes in deformation within a narrow, hot, upward-migrating shear-zone that developed rapidly, and tracked the rising aggradation surface of the ignimbrite-agglutinate while it progressively aggraded, followed by minor modification by mass flowage.