Simulation of Large-Scale Thrust Faulting and Folding of Sedimentary Rocks Via the Extended Finite Element Method
The proposed finite element formulation imposes the frictional contact constraint via the penalty method enforced in the current configuration. The algorithm for bulk deformation follows the framework of multiplicative plasticity, in which the deformation gradient is decomposed in product form into elastic and inelastic parts. Numerical integration is done implicitly using classical return mapping algorithm of computational plasticity. Through numerical examples, we demonstrate how the proposed extended finite element model may be used to simulate thrusting of an oblique fault, as well as quantify the effect of fault movement on the geometry and fracture density of the resulting fold.