3D STRUCTURAL MODEL BUILDING – THE MT. LYKAION (GREECE) SANCTUARY OF ZEUS CASE STUDY
The major structural contacts at the Sanctuary of Zeus have quite a range in orientations. On one extreme, there is a major near-horizontal thrust fault at the base of the Mt. Lykaion summit area, which is a tectonic klippe. On the other hand there are high-angle active normal faults, one of which can be traced for two kilometers across complex topography; this fault cuts and offsets the klippe. In addition there are major anticlines and synclines, which, along their axial traces, can be seen to vary from upright to overturned.
3D structural modeling software provides the capacity to analyse in-progress geological mapping of this tectonically complicated area. The latest 3D model was constructed by drawing cross sections using a dip isogon method which takes into account the rheologies of strata. Working in a 3D digital environment allows integrating the field data (bedding readings, geological contacts, fold axial traces and landscape photos displaying the expression of bedding and structure) with remote sensing data (DEM and aerial photographs). Of particular value is the availability to access, display and integrate the wide range of raw data within the same digital platform. Simultaneous visualization and real time update of the data set and work in progress in map view, section view and 3D view helps establishing an accurate portrayal of all of the structures and contacts.
The iterative approach, where structural analysis and modeling helps to guide the fieldwork effort, resulted in refined interpretation in critical areas. Furthermore, it aids in the visualization of 3D structures mapped in the field by displaying structural and stratigraphic relationships in 3D using rigorous techniques.