Northeastern (46th Annual) and North-Central (45th Annual) Joint Meeting (20–22 March 2011)

Paper No. 7
Presentation Time: 3:15 PM


OTTERSON, Katherine A., Geography and Anthropology, University of Southern Maine, 79 Falmouth Street 1R, Portland, ME 04103, POLLOCK, Stephen G., Geosciences, University of Southern Maine, Gorham, ME 04038 and HAMILTON, Nathan D., Geography and Anthropology, University of Southern Maine, Gorham, ME 04038,

Sourcing of raw materials in Historical Archaeology has been relevant to understanding production consumption and social networks. The excavation of the 17th and 18th century fishing station on Smuttynose Island in the Isles of Shoals produced a remarkably large sample of artifacts and fauna. This analysis examined a sample of red ware and white ware tobacco smoking pipes to source production. Two historic sites in the Gulf of Maine have large samples of red ware pipes, Smuttynose and Colonial Pemaquid. We selected 50 specimens from dated contexts for x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence analysis. The x-ray diffraction analysis of both red ware and white ware pipes suggests a well defined mineralogical signature. Red ware pipes are characterized by small peaks confirming hematite. Other red ware minerals are, in decreasing peak prominence, quartz, plagioclase and alkali feldspar along with muscovite. No peaks consistent with gibbsite kaolinite or other clay minerals were recognized.

There are two mineralogical populations of white ware pipes. One population consists solely of quartz and the second population is separated from the first by peaks consistent with muscovite and a sodic plagioclase feldspar. Geochemical analysis suggests the red ware pipes are inconsistent with a glacial marine source which would be the only suitable material for pipe manufacture in New England. The analysis of red ware pipes suggests production in a location with tropical sediments. Although Charlestown Massachusetts has been cited as a likely source we feel the Caribbean connection may be more likely.