PREFERENTIAL FLOW PATHS IN GLACIAL LAKE OSHKOSH SEDIMENT, OUTAGAMIE COUNTY, WI
A combination of hard and soft data was used to create 300 three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic models of the site using multiple-point geostatistics. All 300 models had at least one connected high K zone in the horizontal and vertical directions. A representative set of six hydrostratigraphic models was selected based on analyses of statistics of connectivity, imported into groundwater flow models, and calibrated to head data. Finally, particle tracking was performed and compared to statistics of connectivity.
Particle tracking results indicated preferential flow is likely occurring, since every model had examples of individual particles traced through high K units in faster time than nearby particles moving through low K units. Comparisons to connectivity statistics indicated that a hydrostratigraphic model with fewer, longer pathways or one with many shorter pathways can create preferential flow paths and that preferential flow can occur in a glacially-deposited aquitard through connected sand bodies without the presence of fractures.