A PLIO-PLEISTOCENE RECORD OF LACUSTRINE OSTRACODES FROM BUTTE VALLEY, CALIFORNIA: FAUNAL RESPONSES TO TECTONIC AND CLIMATIC CHANGE
Fifteen species are present in the Butte Valley sediment core, forming three major assemblages also illustrated in constrained cluster analysis (farthest neighbor, squared chord distance). The lowest assemblage, from 90.343 to 77.343 m (ca 3 my to 2.75 my) is distinguished by Tuberocypris sp. (extinct), where it is abundant and strongly correlated with Cytherissa lacustris and Cypria sp. This late Pliocene assemblage indicates a stable, permanent freshwater lake. C. lacustris is present in the Butte Valley core in syngamic form, with shell characteristics comparable to C. lacustris baikalensis. Cytherissa makes its last appearance during the Olduvai Sub-Chron, circa 2 mya. A second assemblage (90.343 to 77.343 m – ca 2.75 my to 1.1 my) shows the appearances of Limnocythere sappaensis and L. ceriotuberosa, indicating rising concentrations of bicarbonate dominated saline water. These conditions end near the base of the Jaramillo Sub-Chron. The third assemblage (77.353 to 19.413 – ca. 1.1 my to 400 kya, during the Mid Pleistocene transition) shows considerable species variability, ranging from L. platyforma, indicative of freshening events, to halophylic L. sappaensis and L. ceriotuberosa. Overall the lake record trends toward greater salinity near the top of the core; conditions favored by the then dominant L. sappaensis and L. ceriotuberosa.