PHARMACEUTICALS IN GROUNDWATER AS INDICATORS FOR REDOX CONDITIONS
We chose different pharmaceutical compounds that have been detected regularly in groundwater world wide. These compounds are Sulfamethoxazole, Diclofenac, Ibuprofen, and Carbamazepine. These compounds were studied in the field and in laboratory soil columns. The water in the soil column was spiked with the four compounds and the specific redox conditions in the column were varied throughout the experiment.
Results show that Sulfamethoxazole was reduced under denitrifying conditions, whereas Ibuprofen was rather stable under denitrifying conditions. Diclofenac has shown to be reduced under oxidizing conditions, whereas Carbamazepine was not significantly influenced by the redox conditions. These results helped to understand previously reported occurrences and disappearances of Sulfamethoxazol and could be used - combined with the results on the transport of the other compounds - to deduce groundwater redox conditions along the flow path.