SITE FORMATION PROCESSES AT CRENSHAW (3MI6), A FOURCHE MALINE/CADDO SITE ALONG THE RED RIVER, SOUTHWEST ARKANSAS
Ancient Fourche Maline and Caddo occupation of the site dates at least between A.D. 900 to A.D. 1400 and is fortuitously preserved within and on older intact sediment in an area surrounded by stream incision to the north, east, and south of the site. The most ancient paleochannel to the west of the site predates or is penecontemporaneous with initial site occupation. This partially filled western paleochannel was used as a borrow pit for mound construction by the site’s occupants. Oxbow lakes to the north and south were formed by channel abandonment shortly before A.D. 1912 and A.D. 1864, respectively. Sediment within the site area was primarily deposited and partially buried the site through vertical accretion when the Red River occupied more distant channel positions, probably during site occupation. Later crevasse splay deposition from the various nearby historic Red River channels further buried the site after it was abandoned.