USING ELECTRIC LOGS TO ESTIMATE SALINITY AND MAP RESOURCES OF FRESH AND BRACKISH GROUNDWATER
We also used electric logs to correlate stratigraphic boundaries, map lithologies, and interpret depositional environments. Electric log correlation is an established procedure where recurring curve patterns reflect bedding continuity between wells. The Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer is composed of interbedded sandstones and shales, which can be distinguished with confidence by electric log response. Shales have uniformly low resistivities, whereas sandstone resistivities vary with groundwater salinity. Depositional environments, which include nonmarine fluvial and marine shoreline facies, are useful for interpolating sandstone geometries between wells.
We estimated volume and distribution of fresh (<1,000 mg/L TDS), slightly saline (1,000 – 3,000 mg/L), moderately saline (3,000 – 10,000 mg/L), and very saline (>10,000 mg/L) groundwater. Commonly, groundwater salinity is inversely proportional to sandstone thickness and lateral continuity. Salinities display distinct variations between sandstones separated by shale interbeds. Brackish groundwater overlies fresh groundwater locally. Downdip salinity interfaces can be identified within thick sandstones. Relative hydraulic connectivity between fresh and brackish groundwater systems can be evaluated.