FINE-TUNING LATE MAASTRICHTIAN FAUNAL UPHEAVALS, CLIMATIC EVENTS AND MAJOR VOLCANIC EPISODES
The dissolution event (base CF4) and high stress environment and extinctions (top CF4) can be traced through the Tethys (Egypt, Israel) to the Indian Ocean (DSDP Site 217 and the Cauvery basin, SE India). In the Tethys (Egypt), correlative high stress conditions in shallow marine settings are recorded by G. cretacea blooms (40-60%) and a decline in the relative abundance of globotruncanids (20%). In the Indian Ocean, the onset of severe faunal stress and intense carbonate dissolution (base CF4) is associated with ongoing Ninetyeast Ridge volcanism. Environmental and faunal changes of the early Late Maastrichtian that have long remained an enigma can now be linked to at least two events – Ninetyeast Ridge volcanism and the onset of Deccan Trap volcanism. Other potentially coeval volcanic episodes yet to be investigated include Eightyeast Ridge, Southern Indian Ocean, and Andean volcanism. Absolute ages (U-Pb) of these volcanic events are vital to confirm this association.