2015 GSA Annual Meeting in Baltimore, Maryland, USA (1-4 November 2015)

Paper No. 227-29
Presentation Time: 9:00 AM-6:30 PM


CARLEY, Tamara L., Geology and Environmental Geosciences, Lafayette College, 116 Van Wickle Hall, Easton, PA 18042, MILLER, Calvin F., Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, COBLE, Matthew A., Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, BANIK, Tenley J., Earth and Environmental Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, FISHER, Christopher M., School of the Environment, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, SCHMITT, Axel K., Earth and Space Sciences, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, JORDAN, Brennan T., Department of Earth Science, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, HANCHAR, John M., Dept of Earth Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NF A1B 3X5, Canada, ECONOMOS, Rita C., Earth and Space Sciences, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1577 and PADILLA, Abraham De Jesus, Earth & Environmental Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, carleyt@lafayette.edu

Zircon, a robust geochronometer and recorder of magmatic evolution, is especially valuable in Iceland where high heat flux and hydrothermal alteration complicate investigations of silicic melts. Using whole rock Hf and Nd isotopes and in situ zircon U-Pb and U-Th ages, O isotopes, and Hf isotopes, we examine contributions from crustal (O) and mantle (Hf, Nd) sources to silicic magmas through time. We analyzed >1000 zircons from 9 volcanic, 6 intrusive, and 10 detrital systems, covering almost all of Iceland’s history (15.6 to 0 Ma) and tectonic settings. Igneous samples are used for focused studies; detrital zircons provide a broad survey of Iceland’s rock record of magmatic history. Zircon εHf (n = 336) ranges from +9 to +17, and correlates with tectonic setting in active volcanic systems (+13 to +16 on rift; +10 to +13 off rift). Whole rock εNd and εHf (and zircon εHf in igneous samples) are positively correlated, falling within and below the lower portion of the range for Icelandic basalts (+11 to +19). Zircon εHf ranged from ~ +13 to +17 early in Iceland’s early history (16-11 Ma), and by ~10 Ma minimum εHf extended to +12. Around 7 Ma, this range began expanding toward even lower values, but maximum values remained consistent. During the late Pleistocene, εHf has ranged from +9 to 17. Our data suggest Miocene zircons record a depleted mantle source, while a new, less depleted mantle source began contributing ~7 Ma. Alternatively, the lower- εHf end member from early Icelandic history became more important after that time. Oxygen isotopes (zrc; n = 753) have a mean δ18O of 3.0 ‰. Approximately 98% of analyses fall below the δ18O range of mantle magma-equilibrated zircon (+5.3 ± 0.3 ‰); 90% of analyses fall between +0.2 and 4.7. While low δ18O does not preclude fractional crystallization of basalt contributing to silicic melt generation, it requires an influence of partial melting or assimilation of crust hydrothermally altered by meteoric water throughout Iceland’s subaerial history. Intriguingly, unlike Hf, O is not correlated with time in the Icelandic zircon record. Regardless of timing of zircon growth with respect to surface conditions and presumed variation in meteoric δ18O (~16 Ma: temperate climate; ~7 Ma: onset of cooling, ~2.5 Ma: full glaciation, ~0 Ma: modern conditions), the average zircon δ18O has remained ~3.0 ‰.