FLIPPING ROCKS: FINDING THE TIME IN CLASS TO STOP LECTURING
Consequently, the most practical path to pedagogical reform may be to identify some common components of transformation and allow instructors the autonomy to decide how to shape those components to fit their particular learning environment. These components may include some combination of the following: 1) Adding student learning objectives; 2) Assessing learning during class using formative assessment activities; 3) Adoption of engaging teaching activities from existing collections; 4) Developing a consistent course structure that encourages students to adopt effective study strategies (e.g., retrieval practice, distributed practice, practice testing); and, 5) independent student learning outside of the classroom. Independent student learning provides an opportunity to shift traditional lecture material to pre-class assignments and thus free time in class to introduce the pedagogical changes that are most closely linked to improved learning. We will describe a flipped class model that incorporates these components and suggest how to begin a process transformation depending upon an instructors experience with reform and the situational factors of their course.