Paper No. 84-12
Presentation Time: 11:05 AM
KIDNEY STONE SYNTHESIS UNDER VARYING CONDITIONS
Kidney stones are hardened crystals that stick together in the kidneys and can cause severe pain and many problems including blood in the urine, blocked urine flow, and urinary tract infections. They are thought to form in the kidneys by supersaturation of calcium and oxalate ions, along with aggregation and adhesion to renal tubular epithelial cells. The most common type of kidney stones are calcium oxalate deposits, the mineral Whewellite (CaC2O4.H2O). We performed laboratory crystal synthesis experiments to recreate Whewellite by combining a solution of calcium chlorite with an equal concentration of potassium oxalate. We then measured the pH and conductivity of the crystals at room temperature and body temperature, as well as analyzed the solution chemistry. We also synthesized calcium oxalate crystals in other salt solutions, pH conditions, and concentrations to understand the effects of other ions on kidney stone formation. We examined the synthesized crystals with the XRD to identify the mineralogy of the crystals, and also under the SEM to identify crystal shapes and growth behavior. We analyzed our results to understand how the crystals grow or aggregate based on varying conditions.