GSA Annual Meeting in Denver, Colorado, USA - 2016

Paper No. 176-9
Presentation Time: 9:00 AM-6:30 PM


PIETRUSZKA, Aaron J., U.S. Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225, MARSKE, Jared P., Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, GARCIA, Michael O., Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, HEATON, Daniel E., Department of Geological Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 and RHODES, J. Michael, Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts, 611 North Pleasant Street, 233 Morrill Science Center, Amherst, MA 01003,

We present Pb, Sr, and Nd isotope ratios for Kīlauea’s historical rift zone lavas (n=50) to examine the magmatic architecture and evolution of the volcano’s East Rift Zone (ERZ) and Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ). Our results show that Kīlauea’s historical eruptive period was preceded by the delivery of a major batch of magma from the summit reservoir to the ERZ. The timing of this intrusion, most likely in the late 17th century, was probably related to the ~300-yr period of explosive eruptions that followed the formation of the modern caldera (Swanson et al., 2012; JVGR). This rift-stored magma was a component in lavas from lower ERZ (LERZ) eruptions in 1790(?), 1840, 1955, and 1960. The only other components in these LERZ lavas are related to summit lavas erupted (1) after the 1924 collapse of Halemaʻumaʻu and (2) during episodes of high fountaining at Kīlauea Iki in 1959. Thus, the intrusion of magma from the summit reservoir into the LERZ is a rare occurrence that is tied to major volcanological events. Intrusions from the summit reservoir in the 1960s likely flushed most older, stored magma from the upper ERZ (UERZ) and middle ERZ (MERZ), leaving large pockets of 1960s-era magma to serve as a dominant component in many subsequent rift lavas. An increase in the duration of pre-eruptive magma storage from the UERZ (~0-7 yr) to the MERZ (~0-19 yr) to the LERZ (up to ~335 yr) is likely controlled by a decrease in the rate of magma supply to the more distal portions of the ERZ. Lavas from several UERZ eruptions in the 1960s and 1970s have a component of mantle-derived magma that bypassed the summit reservoir. There is no evidence for a summit bypass into the MERZ, LERZ, or the volcanically active portion of the SWRZ. These results support a recent model for Kīlauea’s plumbing system (Poland et al., 2014; USGS Prof. Pap. 1801): the ERZ is connected to the deeper “South Caldera” magma body and the volcanic SWRZ is connected to the shallower Halemaʻumaʻu magma body.