SURFICIAL COMPOSITION OF DWARF PLANET CERES (Invited Presentation)
The average thermally corrected reflectance spectrum of Ceres as measured by VIR shows that the spectrum in the 2.6–4.2μm region is compatible with the presence on the surface of a mixture of dark carbon-rich minerals, Mg- phyllosilicates, ammoniated clays, and carbonates . This result confirms previous studies based on ground based spectra [5, 6].
The pervasive presence of Mg- and NH4-bearing phyllosilicates indicates endogenous formation by a globally widespread and extensive alteration processes while the variations in the amount of phyllosilicate suggest the existence of a vertically stratified upper crust .
The heterogeneity of the crust is also suggested by the presence of the ‘bright spots’. The typically dark surface of the dwarf planet Ceres is punctuated by areas of much higher albedo [8,9]. These areas are mostly consistent with a large amount of carbonate, implying recent hydrothermal activity .
 Russell C.T. and Raymond C.A. (2011) Space Sci. Rev., 163, 3–23.  Russell C.T. et al. (2016) Science.  De Sanctis M.C. et al. (2011) Space Sci. Rev., 163, 329–369.  De Sanctis M.C. et al. (2015) Nature.  King T. et al. (1992) Science, 255, 1551–1553.  Rivkin A.S. et al. (2006) Icarus, 185, 563–567.  Ammannito E. et al. (2016), Science.  Li, J.Y. et al. (2016) The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 817, 2, L22.  Ciarniello M. et al. (2016) MNRAS submitted.  De Sanctis et al. (2016), Nature.