Paper No. 8-12
Presentation Time: 8:00 AM-12:00 PM
DETERMINATION OF FLUORIDE REMOVAL EFFICIENCY IN CERAMIC FILTERS IN SAN MIGUEL DE ALLENDE, MEXICO
San Miguel de Allende, Mexico is within the Independence Aquifer in the central part of Mexico. This area is in the high desert region, which is predominantly an agricultural area. The increase in agricultural production is depleting groundwater resources and causing conflict with other uses of this resource. The increased use of irrigation wells is bringing in the ancient groundwater, which is being withdrawn at an unsustainable rate due to the lack of groundwater recharge. Further affecting the use of this aquifer as a reliable source of drinking water. The ancient groundwater has been sitting in a volcanic subterranean that contains certain minerals like fluoride. Mexico drinking water standard for fluoride allowable limit is 1.5 mg/L. In a water quality analysis for the Independence Aquifer, fluoride levels exceeded the allowable limit, some ranging as high as 18.0 mg/L. High level of fluoride concentrations (>2.0 mg/L) in drinking water can result in dental fluorosis with prolonged exposures leading to skeletal fluorosis. Fluoride removal capacities of ceramic filters using different additives, such as bone char, calcium oxide, EDTA, and borax to the ceramic filter mix (created by Catis-Mexico in San Miguel De Allende, Mexico) have been investigated and analyzed for possible removal of fluoride contaminants. This study provides the foundation for ceramic filter fluoride removal capabilities.