BIOMIMETICS AND THE ECHINOID SKELETON. A REVIEW OF THE FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGICAL INTERPRETATIONS OF SKELETAL ORGANIZATION AND THEIR POTENTIAL UTILIZATION IN TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS
The multi-plated echinoid skeleton has been a welcome study object for such biomimetic studies and has been interpreted with respect to, among others: self-supporting pressurized membranes; modular, multi-plated amalgamates, thin-skinned vaults emulating monolithic shells. This review will focus on studies thus far on echinoid skeletons, present new research with respect to stability of clypeasteroid skeletons, and showcase some models derived from cooperation with civil engineers and architects. Furthermore, the potential for biomimetic research based on fossil shells will be reviewed.