SITGREAVES TUFF, SOUTHERN BLACK MOUNTAINS, NW AZ: PHASE CHEMISTRY AND AR DATING ILLUMINATE THE EVOLUTION OF A DYNAMIC SILICIC MAGMATIC SYSTEM
We distinguish two distinct SGT units. The lower unit, SGT1, a ≤30 m unit of interbedded pyroclastic flow and fall deposits, yields an 40Ar/39Ar age of 17.65 Ma. The upper unit, SGT2, a ~140 m unit of pyroclastic flow and minor fall deposits, yields an 40Ar/39Ar age of 17.41 Ma.
SGT1 (Plag>Afs>Bt >Amp>Qtz + Ttn, Zrn, Ap, Chev, Mag) contains two mingled glasses: (1) 74 wt% SiO2, 340 ppm Sr, 720 ppm Ba, Eu/Eu* 0.7, strong HREE depletion; Tzrc sat ~820 ºC; (2) 77 wt% SiO2, 100 ppm Sr, 210 ppm Ba, Eu/Eu* 0.7, strong depletion in both MREE and HREE; Tzrc sat ~720 ºC. REE patterns indicate amphibole fractionation and, for glass (2), Ttn fractionation. These data, together with ubiquitous, abundant amph+bio phenocrysts, suggests evolution under relatively wet and cool conditions. Al-in-amph barometry for SGT1 suggests storage pressures of ~200 MPa. SGT1 Afs (avg. Ca3Na28K71) are oscillatory zoned and contain multiple Ba rich zones, reflecting fluctuating growth conditions.
SGT2 (Afs>Qtz>Am + Ttn, Zrn, Ap, Chev, Mag) has a single glass: 77 wt% SiO2, very low Sr (4 ppm), Ba (3 ppm), and Eu/Eu* (0.06), enriched in HREE; Tzrc sat ~760ºC. REE, Sr, and Ba indicate extensive feldspar fractionation and delayed Ttn and amph saturation, suggesting a relatively hot, dry environment. R-MELTS and amph barometry indicate storage pressures of ~150-200 MPa. Afs (avg. Ca1Na57K42) display monotonic trace element core to rim profiles (12 to 4 ppm Ba) reflecting stable growth conditions; patchy sodic zones (avg. Ca3Na74K23) indicate near- or subsolidus exsolution.
SGT data suggest that the magmatic system following the PST supereruption was dynamic, transitioning from open-system, cool–wet conditions (SGT1) to closed system, hot–dry conditions (SGT2), producing more evolved magma compositions over a 240 ky period.