THE VARIED PERSONALITIES OF SILICIC ICELANDIC INTRUSIONS: A 10 MY RECORD OF SILICIC MAGMA PETROGENESIS IN THE SHALLOW CRUST PRESERVED BY ZIRCON
Trace element compositions of zircons from Icelandic intrusions form a broad but coherent geochemical array consistent with that of zircons from Icelandic volcanoes: Hf is relatively low (typically <13,000 ppm); U/Yb, Gd/Yb, and Ti are high (>0.1, >0.04, 12 ppm median, respectively); and Th/U increases from ~0.3 to ~1 as Th and U concentration rise. Zircon in situ εHf for all intrusions is between +10 and +16. Notably, low zircon δ18O is nearly universal (< +4.5 ‰) regardless of the style of intrusion, relative fraction of silicic material, or whole rock composition (diorites to granophyres). Intrusive zircon δ18O generally extends to lower values than in extrusive zircons; in some cases to extreme lows (< -5 ‰). Median zircon δ18O for individual intrusions ranges from +4.5 to -0.7 ‰, with 7 of 9 intrusions between +3.6 and +2.4 ‰.
Heterogeneous δ18O suggests recycling of hydrothermally (meteoric)-altered crust is important in the genesis of silicic magmas in the Icelandic crust. A wider range of values in intrusive (vs. extrusive) zircons may reflect complex, prolonged, open-system histories experienced by intrusive magmas relative to their extrusive counterparts, as they are assembled from geochemically diverse magma batches. In the case of Vesturhorn, which is dominantly composed of mafic rocks, a higher median δ18O of +4.5 ‰ likely indicates fractional crystallization of typical Icelandic basalt producing silicic magma, but even here low δ18O values require the incorporation of some altered crust.