MULTI-TECHNIQUES GEOLOGIC AND GEOMORPHOLOGIC MAPPING OF THE BEDROCK OUTCROPS WITHIN THE MCDANIELS QUADRANGLE, ROUGH CREEK GRABEN, KENTUCKY
The study area is composed of mostly sandstone, shale, and limestone, with characteristic sedimentary structures such as double mud-drapes, tidal bundles, herringbone cross-stratification, and hummocky cross-stratification. The depositional environments are interpreted to represent shallow-marine, coastal-plain, and incised valleys, with the tide, wave and storm-dominated systems. Thin-section petrographic analysis shows that sandstone units are ferruginous with dominantly quartz grains and iron oxide. The limestone units have a variety of textures, including mudstone, grainstone, and oolites. The area is structurally controlled by two NE- and E-trending fault zones associated with the Rough Creek Graben. Field and remote sensing-based structural analysis reveals a predominant NE-trending mesoscale structure. The river longitudinal profile analysis reveals geomorphological signals recorded by knickpoint distribution in a bedrock-controlled system. Our geologic map of the McDaniels Quadrangle provides a necessary update to an old map with more detailed insights for stakeholders to anticipate potential hazards, plan construction projects, and gain a deeper knowledge of both the surface and subsurface features of the area.