LINKS BETWEEN LANDSCAPE AND LAKESCAPE IN EAST AFRICA, INFERENCES FOR CONSERVATION PALEOECOLOGY FROM LAKE TANGANYIKA
We combine long (60ka) and intermediate-length (400yrs) lake sediment records from Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania) to document relationships among climate, vegetation, weathering, and aquatic ecosystems at multiple scales. These records illustrate that glacial-interglacial climate change did not significantly alter weathering intensity. Instead, weathering responses occurred during a major vegetation reorganization attributable to Iron Age human activity. Furthermore, anthropogenic landscape alteration and historical land-use resulted in widespread soil erosion. In combination with a high-resolution record that documents interannual changes in lacustrine primary production, we develop a conceptual model for understanding the interactive effects of climate and land-use change associated with agricultural intensification on fisheries. This shows that impacts to pelagic and benthic communities related to vegetation structure and warming are decoupled and asymmetrical; however, conservation strategies focused on local mitigation of forest loss have the potential for successful outcomes in lakes and on land.