GSA Connects 2021 in Portland, Oregon

Paper No. 24-2
Presentation Time: 9:00 AM-1:00 PM


DENTE, Chloe, Department of Biology, Austin Peay State University, P.O. Box 4718, Clarksville, TN 37044 and FREDERICK, Daniel, Dept of Geosciences, Austin Peay State University, P.O. Box 4418, Clarksville, TN 37044

Puget Sound is the southern portion of the Salish Sea, a complex fjord system located in Washington State, USA, and British Columbia, Canada. Budd Inlet is located South Sound Basin and is nearly the southernmost inlet of Puget Sound. Olympia Washington is located at the head of Budd Inlet and the LOTT waste water treatment plant effluent is discharges 13 mgd near the head of the inlet. Additional fresh water input is contributed by the Deschutes River at the western head of the inlet. The combination of LOTT effluent and Deschutes River results in a significant fresh water outflow along the eastern side of the inlet. This outflow is balanced by a subsurface inflow from the open sound along the western margin of the inlet. Eld Inlet is located just to the west of Budd Inlet. In contrast to Budd Inlet, Eld Inlet has no waste water treatment plants effluent discharged and has less development along the shoreline.

A preliminary study of the Foraminiferal assemblage of the tidal flat of Budd Inlet have been previously published (Dente et al., 2019). The Budd Inlet intertidal foraminiferal assemblage characterized by low diversity and low abundance. The assemblage is dominated by a single species Ammonia beccarii, in some samples a monospecific assemblage. The abundance and diversity of tidal flat Foraminifera species increases from the head to the mouth of Budd inlet along the east margin. On the west side of the inlet diversity increases from the mouth to the head of the inlet. In Eld inlet the diversity and abundance of Foraminifera increases from the head toward the mouth.

Comparison the Foraminiferal Assemblage in the two inlets indicates that the LOTT waste water treatment effluent is having an impact on the Foraminiferal Assemblage. The input of high nutrient waste water appears to be the major factor causing this impact.


Dente, C., Frederick, D. L. and Stewart, K. (2019) ‘Foraminiferal assemblage in the tidal flats of Budd Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington State, USA’, Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America, 51(5), p. @Abstract no. 270-9. Available at: Https:// (Accessed: 20 July 2021).