ENHANCING ACTIVE LEARNING IN A PLACE-BASED GEOSCIENCE COURSE USING THE ICAP THEORY OF COGNITIVE ENGAGEMENT
The goal of this proof-of-concept study was to make modifications to the course without making drastic changes to the established curriculum and instruction or rendering the course less place-based. The instructor started by using the ICAP framework to characterize the instructional strategies and activities used in previous years and to analyze the types of questions asked during lectures. He then used ICAP to plan instruction to engage students in higher ICAP modes. Two strategies employed by the instructor were (1) guiding student notetaking and questioning with designed handouts, and (2) deliberate use of ICAP verbs (Chi et al., 2018) during lectures and in-class activities to prompt student engagement in targeted ICAP modes. The researcher was consulted on the course modifications and attended classes throughout the semester to make observations. Results indicate that the course became more Active and Constructive in comparison to previous years, students in general responded positively to the changes, and the ICAP framework is fully compatible with place-based geoscience teaching.